South of Athens in the small town of Alopeke, Socrates was born in 469 BC. He is the child of stonemason Sophoniskos and Phainarete. Socrates mentions that he wed a woman with a tough temperament by the name of Xantippe. His childhood years are unknown. His three sons are known to exist. Prodikos, a philosopher, and Theodoras of Cyrene, a well-known mathematician, both taught him. He briefly carried on his father’s business. He went to the Sophists’ classes because they were the intellectual role models in Athens at the time. Here, he picked up the teaching approach. He took part in the Battle of Potidia when war broke out in Greece. After being hurt in this battle, he developed a passion for philosophy and spent years studying it. Analyses were also discovered by taking an interest in Democritus’s atomic models. He offered fresh interpretations of the theories and practices of the so-called “Sophistes,” who were well-versed in grammar, rhetoric, and politics and had conducted extensive research in these fields. By taking on their education for a fee, these people were aiding young people in this way. To set himself apart from these philosophers, Socrates created the term “philosophes,” which means “lover of knowledge.” The origin and spread of the concepts of philosophy and philosopher were made possible by this idea. Socrates became the first philosopher to refer to himself as a philosopher in this way.
Since the rhetorician Lykhon and the leather tanner Anytos defended Melitos’ opposition to the moral understanding that Socrates sought to bring to Athens, Socrates was given the death penalty. Melitos was a significant poet of the time. He spent thirty days incarcerated in a cell. He refused the suggestion to be kidnapped by one of his powerful and wealthy disciples, Krito, and submitted to death. He asserted that refusing to violate the Athenian laws, which he had long supported, would put him in danger and cause him conflict. He believed that his actions would go against morality. Plato’s mention of these incidents demonstrates the close connection between his life and his philosophy. Socrates was one of the Sophists who gathered to teach philosophy to the Athens political youth in exchange for payment for lectures, but his behavior was grounded in moderation and balance, remained constant throughout time, and appeared to be what it was.
Socrates’ method, behavior, and attitudes are based on the written sources from Athens even though his works have not survived. His proteges Plato and Xenophon articulated his philosophical principles and teachings. On the other hand, Aristophanes dealt with his actions and beliefs that went against social norms. Before meeting him, Plato was a poet, and he kept a record of their conversations to help him understand his own methods after meeting Socrates. The work Socrates’ Defense, which addresses this issue, has served as a guide for subsequent generations by discussing Socrates’ strategies and tactics when dealing with an unjustified accusation. He covered the mindset and resolve of a wise person in the face of death in the two books that came after. Judges presided over cases in ancient Athens, and their numbers were determined by the weight of the cases. Some 500 competent judges heard the case of Socrates. Usually, the criminal gets off by winning over the judges with his oratory abilities. For this reason, he would hire lawyers to write his defenses to the defendants in exchange for payment. Socrates employed the dialectical questioning technique he was most familiar with rather than the oratory technique. He refused to defend himself or ask the judges for forgiveness, instead arguing that his ideas were correct. He wished to keep the death penalty in place for this reason. Due to the fact that it was a holy day in Athens, his execution was put off.
Socrates and Kant, two other significant philosophers, have a lot in common. Both support the pursuit of rational knowledge and oppose all forms of dogmatism. When it comes to metaphysical matters, both claim to be completely ignorant, and their unique characteristics are based on their overt awareness of this ignorance. He contends that practice, on the other hand, is perfectly clear and clear by itself and does not require any theoretical foundation. Practice is something that a person will do and endure. The fate of their devoted supporters and defenders, however, is the same for both.
Socrates’ own words
*Bad people exist only to consume food and liquids. To survive, good people must eat and drink. Knowledge is the only good, and ignorance is the only bad.
A life without thought is not a life.
* I am unique compared to other people because I am aware of my ignorance.
There has always been hunger among people everywhere, but not always good moral character.
One thing I am certain of is my ignorance of all things.
Its characteristic is the power of the spirit of virtue.
* No one intentionally does bad things; instead, ignorance, which is mistaken for knowledge, is the root of all evil. Similar to how vegetation hides the ugly of the soil, the so-called sweetness of a person can mask many of their flaws.
I can only get people to think; I can’t teach anyone anything.
* If someone wants to change something, they should begin with changing themselves.
A judge must listen intently, speak wisely, think clearly, and make an impartial decision.
* A woman will be superior to a man once she is treated equally.
Greed is natural wealth, while luxury is manufactured poverty. People who can do better jobs than those they currently hold are also straying, not just the unemployed.
* We get closer to reality the farther we get from life. Think about the cost of ignorance before arguing that education is expensive. When their shoes are taken, an upbeat person can claim, “I still have feet.”