The most significant German statesman in the process of ensuring German unification in the 19th century and transforming it into a powerful German Empire under the leadership of Prussia was Otto von Bismarck, known as the Iron Chancellor and the son of a Prussian Junker. Von Bismarck, Otto
In order to create the national unity of Germany out of small states in the form of a loose confederation, Bismarck, who was appointed as the Prime Minister of Prussia in 1862, declared war on Denmark on behalf of the “Germanic Confederation” with Austria. In 1864, Schleswig (Prussia), with the majority of its population of German origin, and Holstein (by Austria), were annexed. In 1866, Bismarck decisively defeated Austria in Sadowa as a result of his diplomatic efforts to ensure the neutrality of Prussia’s right and left sides, namely France and Russia. However, he refrained from entering Vienna due to the need for a future natural alliance and his success in overcoming this nation’s ongoing hostility. refused to pull. As a result, the North Germanic Confederation was founded in 1867 under Prussian rule. In order to end France’s hold over the Catholic German states, Bismarck used shrewd diplomacy to secure the neutrality of Austria and Russia in the infamous Battle of Sedan in 1870. [Grundlage der Deutschen Union]
One of the major issues between France and Germany in the future will be the annexation of the industrial region of Alsaice-Lorrine, whose population is primarily of French descent. The establishment of German national unity resulted from the joining of Prussia and the Catholic German states to the south of the Main Stream at the end of this conflict. Through this process, the Third Republic was founded and the Napoleonic Empire fell, with Bismarck serving as the German Chancellor and the King of Prussia as the German emperor.
The sudden emergence of German nationalism after 1870 accelerated the imperialism race between the European powers and upset the balance of power in Europe. Bismarck used deft diplomacy to build a system of alliances in exchange for minor concessions until 1890, when he was ousted from power. He also calculated very well who to fight when by guaranteeing the neutrality of powerful states. As a result, Germany was able to overcome its strategic weakness between France and Russia without the aid of any natural barriers.
By creating the Union of the First Three Emperors with Austria and Russia from 1872 until the Balkan crisis in 1875, he attempted to maintain peace between Austria and Russia and served as a deterrent against a potential French attack. Against France, it once more formed an alliance with Austria in 1879, and Italy joined this coalition in 1882. The Triple Alliance was created as a result, and it lasted until 1915. In 1887, Bismarck signed a Treaty of Assurance with Russia in addition to the Triple Alliance because of the deterioration in Austria-Russian relations brought on by the nationalism crises in the Balkans that started in 1885–1886. (Parliament of Germany)
The security of Germany and the stability of the continent were more important to Bismarck than colonialism, which would eventually have disastrous effects. Germany became the most powerful state in Europe, and Bismarck, who pursued a pro-peace policy with alliance systems for the strengthening of the new Germany, was instrumental in shaping European diplomacy.