Antibiotic Resistance: What Is It and How Does It Occur?

Antibiotic Resistance

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Antibiotic resistance happens when a bacterium becomes resistant to an antibiotic’s ability to control or kill it. In this instance, despite the presence of a therapeutic dose of antibiotics, the bacteria are resistant and continue to grow.

When an antibiotic is used, bacteria in the body develop an immunity to it, allowing them to survive, while any other bacteria perish. Only bacteria with resistance are still present.
Some defense mechanisms develop on their own, unaffected by humans. Because bacteria can produce their own antibiotics and use them to fight off other bacteria. Only bacteria that are resistant to the produced antibiotic survive as a result. Despite this, the widespread development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria today is a result of their excessive use. Online antibiotic purchases without a prescription are permitted in some nations. Additionally, patients occasionally overuse antibiotics to treat viral illnesses like the common cold. By using antibiotics in this manner, the quantity of resistant bacteria increases. Additionally, this image poses a serious threat to global health. Because more bacteria will become resistant to antibiotics, our current medications will become ineffective, and the development of new antibiotics will become urgently necessary for the treatment of diseases.

Natural antibiotic resistance exists in some bacteria. Bacteria can develop resistance in two additional ways, too. These two methods include acquiring resistance from another bacterium or through genetic mutation.

Mutations are uncommon, spontaneous changes that take place in the genetic code of bacteria. One in a million cells are thought to experience it occasionally. Different types of resistance are produced by various genetic mutations. Bacteria can produce enzymes that neutralize antibiotics as a result of some mutations. A few mutations also remove the element of the cell that the antibiotic is targeting. Other times, the channels the antibiotic uses to enter the cell are blocked, or the antibiotic is thrown out before it can use a different channel mechanism to start working.

Antibiotic resistance genes can be acquired by bacteria from other bacteria in several different ways. Bacteria can exchange genetic material with one another through a process known as conjugation. This method can also be used to transmit antibiotic resistance genes from one bacterium to another. Another way that bacteria can spread resistance genes is through viruses. Bacterial resistance genes are carried by viruses. Any bacteria that viruses infect can acquire the resistance genes from them. Additionally, bacteria have the capacity to enter cells with the naked DNA molecules found in their environment.

Any bacterium has the ability to develop genes for antibiotic resistance through mutation or gene exchange with another bacterium, making it susceptible to developing resistance to one or more antibiotics. due to the fact that bacteria can amass multiple resistance traits over time.

What Causes the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance?

The number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is continuously rising because bacteria pass the gene for resistance to new generations as they reproduce. Additionally, various bacterial species exchange resistance genes with one another. Antibiotic resistance genes are transported from one location to another by bacteria, according to the environment. bacteria: They can spread through the air, water, and wind to the environment. Resistant bacteria can also be transferred from one person to another through coughing or contact with unwashed hands.

Can bacteria develop a resistance to an antibiotic? It takes time for bacteria to become less resistant to antibiotics. This requires getting rid of the antibiotic that has developed resistance. Therefore, resistant bacteria are not superior to other bacteria in any way. The proportion of resistant bacteria gradually declines as other types of bacteria start to proliferate.

Taking Action Against Antibiotic Resistance

The best defense against the spread of virulent bacteria and illnesses is good hygiene habits. In order to stop the spread of diseases, wash your hands frequently with soap and water. In hospitals, it may be advantageous to completely cook the meat when preparing meals and to clean it while making food-based antibacterial soaps, but there are worries that these soaps may encourage antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, their value has not yet been established.

Avoiding overusing the antibiotic in order to maintain its effect is another precaution people can take in this regard. It should only be used for this reason and in the dosages that the doctor prescribes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is concerned about the worldwide rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. glo on thisThe WHO has released a document urging governments to take action on this issue in order to ensure effective coordination.

Access to antibiotics must be restricted in developing nations. Additionally, there is a need to lessen the use of antibiotics in agriculture and animal husbandry and to ensure the cleanliness of water resources. Experts concur that a global system is necessary to monitor antibiotic resistance. If such a system can be created, we can determine whether the current security measures are adequate.

Scientists modify existing antibiotics to prevent antibiotic resistance so that the enzyme that gives bacteria resistance cannot render the antibiotic inactive. An alternative to this tactic is to add a molecule that suppresses the enzyme that results in bacterial resistance. The creation of a new antibiotic can be used to control an epidemic of resistant bacteria that have spread throughout an area. The process of creating a new antibiotic is time-consuming and expensive. It costs $300 million and takes about 10 years. However, within two years, resistant bacteria may appear as a result of the improper use of recently developed antibiotics. This is why researchers are always looking for new antibiotics.

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